Marcie, who inspired MarcieMom to start this blog, doesn’t have any allergy and thus, this blog has been focused on eczema. Recognizing that there are many parents whose child also have allergy, MarcieMom invites Dr Liew Woei Kang, Paediatrician with special interest in Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology to share more about managing allergy for eczema children.
More about Dr Liew: Dr. Liew practices at the SBCC Baby & Child Clinic and is also a visiting consultant to KK Hospital. He was also awarded several research grants from the National Medical Research Council, Singhealth Foundation and KKH Research centre to pursue clinical research in paediatric anaphylaxis, drug allergy, primary immunodeficiencies and Kawasaki disease. He is also the President of Singapore’s Asthma & Allergy Association which is currently administering the very first eczema fund (initiated by MarcieMom’s donation) for low income patients in Singapore.
MarcieMom: Thank you Dr Liew for taking time to help answer these questions, we’ll start with the basic information on allergy as this blog hasn’t covered this topic before.
Question: What is an allergy? For children with eczema, should parents send their children to allergy tests or should only those with eczema of a certain severity do so?
Dr Liew: An allergy is simply an abnormal immune reaction to a common protein. Symptoms are varied depending on trigger and organ involvement. The most common reaction is on the skin, resulting in itchy rashes like urticaria (hives) or eczema flares.
Atopic eczema starts essentially as a skin barrier defect, with resultant dryness, itch and allergen sensitisation later. It is not a pure allergic disease. Skin tests for eczema patients are generally not necessary, as the most common allergen is house dust mites. Food triggers are more commonly in young infants with significant eczema despite good skin therapy.
MarcieMom: Allergy and intolerance are often mixed up; can you explain the difference between the two, specifically, how a parent can correctly identify if the child is allergic or intolerant and what follow-up action they should take in each case?
Dr Liew: Allergy and intolerance result in adverse reactions, but the key difference is that the former involves the immune system, whilst the latter do not. If the immune system is involved, there is a potential for severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis with continued exposure due to immune memory. There is no risk of anaphylaxis in intolerance. Eg. Cow’s milk allergy can result in hives, vomiting and wheezing; in contrast, cow’s milk intolerance presents with diarrhea in lactose deficient individuals.
MarcieMom: Thanks Dr Liew for your very clear explanation; now, we know the meanings of allergy, eczema and intolerance. Next week, we’ll chat more on different allergy tests.